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1.3.3 Modeling Physical Processes and Interactions

Mechanical-Groundwater Flow Coupling — Several types of fluid/solid interaction can be specified in FLAC3D.

Thermal-Mechanical Coupling—The thermal-mechanical coupling in FLAC3D is one-way: temperature change may induce a mechanical stress change as a function of the thermal-expansion coefficient.

Thermal-Groundwater Flow Coupling—The thermal calculation may be coupled to the groundwater  flow calculation by making pore pressures a function of temperature change.

1.4 Summary of Updates from Version 2.1

1.4.1 Hysteretic Damping

1.4.2 Hoek-Brown Constitutive Model

The Hoek-Brown failure criterion is implemented as a built-in constitutive model in FLAC3D 3.0. The failure surface is nonlinear and is based on the relation between the major and minor principal stresses.

1.4.3 Thermal Advection Logic

1.4.4 Hydration Models

Hydration is defined as the chemical absorption of water into a substance, a process by which heat is generated—the so-called hydration heat.

1.4.5 Computation Enhancements

1.4.6 Movie Feature

1.4.7 Network Key Facility

1.4.8 3DShop Compatibility

1.4.9 Fluid-Flow Particle Tracking

1.4.10 New Features in FISH

do update  updates all grid-related quantities
gp dynmul returns the dynamic multi-stepping multiplier to the global timestep
z dynmul  returns the dynamic multi-stepping multiplier to the global timestep
z facenorm  returns area and normal to a zone face
z fri  returns the full rate of rotation increment tensor
z frr returns  the full rate of rotation tensor
z inimodel initializes all derived model properties for a zone
z pstress returns the principal stress magnitudes and directions
z sonplane  returns the normal and shear stress on a user specified plane

1.4.11 New Command and Utilities

GENERATE  separate
separates a group of zones from the grid by duplicating gridpoints at shared boundaries
GENERATE zone uwedge
a uniform wedge meshing primitive is now available
GROUP none
unassigns a group name from zones
GROUP remainder
allows assignment of a group name to all zones that belong to the null group
allows the importing or exporting of 3DShop grid files
simplifies creation of interfaces on group boundaries
MOVIE allows the creation of AVI or DCX animations
PDELETE allows deletion of particles in a fluid flow simulation
PLOT block state
state colors are now based on the state flags and no longer change when the view is changed
PLOT extract
allows extraction of numerical values from the grid into a FISH array
SOLVE fishhalt
allows user to specify termination criteria for solving through a FISH function
TRACK allows particle paths to be traced in a fluid flow simulation

1.5 Fields of Application

• mechanical loading capacity and deformations—in slope stability and foundation design;
• evolution of progressive failure and collapse — in hard rock mine and tunnel design;
• factor-of-safety calculation — in stability analyses for earth structures, embankments and slopes;
• evaluation of the influence of fault structures — in mine design;
• restraint provided by cable support on geologic materials—in rock bolting, tiebacks and soil nailing;
• fully and partially saturated fluid flow and pore-pressure build-up and dissipation for undrained and drained loading—in groundwater flow and consolidation studies of earthretaining structures;
• time-dependent creep behavior of viscous materials — in salt and potash mine design;
• dynamic loading on slip-prone geologic structures—in earthquake engineering and mine rockburst studies;
• dynamic effects of explosive loading and vibrations — in tunnel driving or in mining operations;
• seismic excitation of structures —in earth dam design;
• deformation and mechanical instability resulting from thermal-induced loads — in performance assessment of underground repositories of high level radioactive waste; and
• analysis of highly deformable materials — in bulk flow of materials in bins and mine caving.

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