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英语科学论文写作:分类句式用语

作者:胡庚申 申云桢(清华大学外语系,北京 100084)

一、引 言

科学论文的写作在常用句型、用语方面有一定的规律可循。掌握这些基本规律,写作论文时可收到事半功倍的效果。那么,常用的句型、句式怎样分类比较科学?通常用到的句式为哪些类型?各种类型又有哪些基本表达方法? 所有这些问题,都拟在本文内例述和研讨。

为什么要掌握分类句式用语呢?

  1. 有利于避免不必要的重复。许多有用的句型,通常出现在科学论文的不同部分,如表示研究目的用语,不仅在论文摘要中用到,而且在引言、讨论、甚至结论等部分都会用到。如果我们在讲述怎样写作各部分时都列举类似的用语,势必造成重复、赘述。现在把它们集中起来分类例述,就能避免不必要的重复。
  2. 掌握分类句式用语有利于比较地道、规范的英语表达。把英美人写作论文时的句式用语集中地进行分类选择,有利于广大专业技术人员和研究生们学习、模仿比较地道、规范的英语表达,有利于节约时间,避免费力耗时地造出“蹩脚的”、甚至“中国式”的英语表达。
  3. 掌握分类句式用语有利于写作中的多样化表达。把表达相同或相似概念的不同表达方式集中分类,便于写作中选择、比较,有利于交替使用不同的句型,避免句式单调、用词单一,实现表达多样。
  4. 掌握分类句式用语也符合科学论文的写作规律。因为常用的句型是写作中客观存在的,它们的使用已基本上格式化,而且使用的频率又很高,所以对常用的句式用语进行科学的分类,是一件有实用意义的工作。

至于怎样分类,这主要是从两个方面考虑。

  1. 从逻辑思维角度考虑。人们总是首先提出问题,然后分析和解决问题,最后得出结果或结论。这可以看作是解决问题的一种“模式”。这种“模式”,也可作为我们分类选择句式用语时的指导思想。
  2. 从写作程式角度考虑。任何一篇科学论文的写作,大都要:①指出其研究的目的,②限定其讨论的范围,③说明其理论的依据,④描述其实验的步骤,⑤介绍其工作的方法,⑥展示其研究的结果,⑦作出科学的评价等。这种基本“程式”,正是我们分类选择句式用语的实践依据。

鉴于上述,我们在本文内对科学论文写作中常用的句式用语进行了分类,并选择了240余条例句供参考。
俗语说:“熟读唐诗三百首,不会作诗也会吟”。我们深信,掌握英语科学论文写作中常用的句式用语,无疑会有助于科学论文的写作。

二、“指出目的”的句式用语

主要用场

指出研究目的句型在英语科学论文中反复出现,这类句型用语比较集中地使用在论文的摘要、引言、讨论、结论等部分。指出研究目的的常用表达有:“本文的主要目的……”,“该项工作主要是关于……”,“该项工作的主要目的是……”,“该项研究的主要目的是……”,“该项实验主要是为了……”等等。

常用句式

(1)本文的主要目的是……

  1. The purpose of this paper is…
  2. The primary goal of this research is…
  3. The intention of this paper is to survey…
  4. The overa11 objective of this study is…
  5. In this paper,… was provided (given,i11ustrated)
  6. Our goal has been to provide…
  7. In this paper,we aim at…
  8. The emphasis of this study lies in…

(2)该项工作是关于……

  1. The present work is concerned with the processes underlying…
  2. The above work deals with the mechanism involved in…
  3. Our work at present is devoted to the changes occurring in…
  4. The work we have done bears on the effects produced by…
  5. The work we are doing is closely related to the deliberations described in .
  6. Compared with the current research, the previous work was in connection with the investigation made by…
  7. The work presented in this paper focuses on several aspects of the following…
  8. The authors are now initiating some experimental investigation to establish…
  9. Our studies were performed to determine the amount of…
  10. The problem we have outlined deals largely with the study of…

(3)该项工作的主要目的是…

  1. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of …
  2. The main purpose of our recent work was to examine the properties of…
  3. The major object of their further work will be research into the nature of…
  4. Our work in this direction has been intended to provide some information about…
  5. The work which is being done now is designed to find some solution to the problem of…
  6. Work of this kind has been started in order to assess the role of …
  7. Previous work in this area was initiated in the hope of obtaining data in…
  8. We did this work hoping to establish…
  9. The authors undertook the work with a view to show…
  10. By doing this work we expect(ed) to demonstrate…
  11. Doing this joint work, we intend(ed) to show…
  12. The primary objective of our work was to define the reasons for redundant protection systems and give examples of systems used in …
  13. With research of many years, the author’s endeavour is to explain why in…
  14. The above-mentioned work has been performed with a view of …

(4)该项研究的主要目的是 …

  1. The chief aim of the present study is to find out…
  2. The primary object of this fundamental research will be to reveal the cause of …
  3. The main objective of our investigation has been to obtain some knowledge of…
  4. The study of …was made in order to clarify…
  5. The above study has been carried out to determine…
  6. Their(pioneer)studies were intended to elucidate…
  7. Those earlier investigations are in hopes of providing evidence for…
  8. We performed this present study in the hope that we might bring to light some facts about…
  9. The authors attempted their studies in order that they might…
  10. We undertook the above study to the end that we might…
  11. They initiated the present study so that they might…
  12. Carrying out this study we hope to find out…
  13. Performing these studies the author intended to reveal…
  14. With recent research, the author intends to outline the framework of…

(5)该项实验主要是为了

  1. We made these experiments in order to show a correlation between…
  2. The author attempted the set of experiment with a view to demonstrate certain phenomena…
  3. Experiments on…were made in order to measure the amount of…
  4. Experiments involving…have been carried out to determine…
  5. Experiments using this technique are (not )under way test(check) …
  6. Experiments on…are made to answer the question whether…
  7. The experiment being made by our research group is aimed at obtaining the result of…
  8. We have designed such an experiment for the purpose of …

三、“限定范围”的句式用语

主要用场

限定主题范围的句式用语,在英文科学论文中常出现在“引言”和“讨论”中。限定主题范围时的常用表达有:“该问题是关于……的研究”,“该问题在……范围之内(外)”,“该问题涉及到……范围”,“该问题可进一步推广到……范围”等等。

常用句式

(1)该问题是关于……的研究

  1. This problem is concerned (chiefly)with the study of…
  2. The problem of …deals (largely)with the determination of …
  3. The problem they have advanced bears on the elucidation of …
  4. The problem to be discussed in this paper is related closely with…
  5. The problem described previously was directed to the example of…, which differs from…
  6. The problem under investigation involves some significant agreements and disagreements in…

(2)这是研究……的问题

  1. The problem concerned with the nature of…
  2. The problem relating to the influence of…
  3. The problem which deals with the role of…
  4. The problem which bears on the effect of…
  5. The problem in connection with…
  6. The problem as mentioned previously in…

(3)该问题在……范围之内(外)

  1. The problem is within the scope of …
  2. Our problem lies beyond the range of …
  3. The problem you have just outlined seems to be outside of the province of…
  4. The problem the authors have raised goes off the limits of…
  5. The problem I have referred to falls within the field of…
  6. The problem under discussion is not within the scope of…

(4)该项研究涉及到……范围

  1. Studies of these effects cover(ed)various aspects of……
  2. Investigations on…involve(d) also specific situations.
  3. Our studies with this technique are confined to one particular aspect.
  4. More recent studies by this worker were chiefly concerned with the influence of…
  5. The research on the conventional techniques explains well the phenomenon of
  6. The new findings from the experiment agree to the result obtained in…

(5)该研究进一步推广到……范围

  1. The authors have extended their studies to some other related species.
  2. We hope to expand our investigations to include other materials.
  3. The research we have done deserves further studies.
  4. The investigation carried out by the experts suggests an increase of the application in …
  5. The approach under study predicates a wider range of application.

四、“说明理论”的句式用语

1. 主要用场

说明有理论根据的句式用语,在英语科学论文中常出现在引言、实验描述及讨论等部分。说明理论根据时常用表达如下:“该理论是……提出来的”,“该理论的内容(特点)是……”;“根据该理论,可以得出……”,“该理论认为 ……”,“应用该理论能(或不能)说明……”等等。

2. 常用句式

(1)该理论是……提出来的

  1. The theory of…was created 50 years ago
  2. The alternative theory was constructed in 50’s.
  3. The theory of…was developed in the 1930’s…
  4. The theory of…was elaborated in the early 70’s.
  5. The theory of…was formulated as early as 1900.
  6. The theory of…was advanced as long ago as the 1860’s.
  7. The theory of…was put forward as far back as 1897.
  8. The theory of…was proposed last year.
  9. The theory of…was suggested the year before last year.

(2)该理论的内容(特点)是……

  1. Underlying this theory is the idea that…
  2. The underlying concept of this theory is…
  3. The underlying principle of the theory is as follows…
  4. This is an alternative theory that…
  5. This is a similar theory to the effect that …
  6. This is a working theory which is based on the idea that…
  7. A basic feature of this theory is …
  8. The fundamental feature of this theory is as follows.
  9. The theory is characterized by…
  10. …prove to be the outstanding features of the theory.

(3)根据该理论,可得出……

  1. According to B’s theory both processes occur simultaneously.
  2. As follows from the theory by N, such situations lead to…
  3. As can be seen from the theory and theory advanced by…such interactions are the basis of…
  4. In the light of the theory ,we have developed a variation method to handle such problems.
  5. Based on the theory, the author has obtained sufficient information from recent experiments with…

(4)该理论认为…

  1. The kinetic theory holds that…
  2. This newly-developed theory maintains that…
  3. The theory advanced by…claims that…
  4. The theory of …predicts that…
  5. The principal concept of the theory lies in…
  6. The investigating theory…

(5)应用该理论(不)能说明……

  1. We can interpret these findings in terms of the above theory.
  2. We cannot explain these phenomena using the above theory.
  3. We can hardly explain these findings applying this theory.
  4. These findings can be interpreted in terms of the above theory.
  5. Such phenomena cannot be explained on the basis of this theory.
  6. The theory can (not) apply to other cases of…
  7. The theory developed by…is valid (invalid)for other species.
  8. X’s theory proved to be true for all steps of…
  9. The above theory has been verified by many other authors.
  10. This very peculiar theory can be applied to a wider range of experiments in …

五、“描述实验”的句式用语

1. 主要用场

描述实验过程的句式用语,顾名思义常用在与实验有关的段落之中。描述实验情况时的常用表达为“该项实验具体包括……”,“到……,从未有过该项实验研究”,“进行该项实验,以便检验……”,“该项实验证实(未能证实),……”等等。

2. 常用句式

(1)某项实验(所用设备)包括……

  1. The experiment consisted of three steps, which are described in Table 3.
  2. The test equipment which was used consisted of five force-measuring transducers and two recording instruments furnished by…
  3. Included in the experiment were a high- pressure vessel assembly, 2 UA –3 uranium 5
    analyzers, and a complete 100*50*50 cm soil bin.
  4. All high-pressure hydrogen creep rupture tests were carried out in specially designed high pressure equipment rated at…
  5. The winch is composed of the following main parts: a welded frame, a safety-brake clutch, a chain drum and a worn reducing gear.

(2)到……,从未有过某方面的实验

  1. An experiment of the kind has not been made.
  2. The kind of experiment you have in mind has never been carried out until now.
  3. The kind of experiment you mentioned would not be undertaken in the near future.
  4. So far we have not performed any experiment of this kind.
  5. Until now the authors have not attempted any field experiments of…
  6. Researches on the mobility of ions in neutral gases began more than 75 years ago, but very accurate data obtained through actual experiments have not appeared as yet.
  7. …However, no direct experimental measurements of this have been reported.

(3)进行该项实验,以检验……

  1. We (have)carried out several sets of experiments to test the validity of…
  2. They undertook many experiments to support the hypothesis which…
  3. We initiated experiments to prove…
  4. They have undertaken special experiments to disprove…
  5. A number of experiments were performed to check…
  6. Many studies have to be attempted to verify…
  7. More than one set of experiments must be initiated to substantiate…

(4)某项实验证实(未能证实)……

  1. Experiments by M and his associates (have) showed…
  2. Recent experiments in this area (have) suggested that…
  3. The present series of experiments (have) indicate(d) that…
  4. The experiments reported here (have) demonstrate (d)
  5. These experiments involving…confirm(ed) our evidence that…
  6. Our experiments with…failed to prove…
  7. These highly-technical experiments support(ed) our assumption that…
  8. Our initial experiment confirms that the choice of concept is correct.
  9. The above-mentioned experiment has proved the newly –developed technique is very reliable.
  10. This conclusion is also supported by the experiment as has been described previously.

六、“介绍方法”的句式用语

1. 主要用场

介绍研究(实验)方法的句式用语,在英语科学论文中常见于摘要(资料型摘要)、引言、实验描述及建议等部分,介绍研究方法时的常用表达如:“该方法首先由……发明(使用)”,“该方法与其他方法有 ……差别”,“应用该方法可以进行……工作”,“该方法称为……”,“使用该方法已获得……”等。

2. 常用句式

(1)该方法首先由……发明(利用)

  1. The method of … was first developed by N.
  2. The method of … was first applied by B.
  3. The method of … was first used by A in the early XXth century.
  4. The method of … was first brought into used by C.
  5. The method of … came into use as long ago as 1920.
  6. The original proposal of this method was first made and published in 1963.
  7. The method of making a frequency standard was not invented till the existence of…

(2)该方法与其他方法有……差别

  1. The method of … does not differ at all the routine one
  2. The method of we use differs greatly from the one used earlier.
  3. The method they developed is somewhat different from the conventional one.
  4. The new technique is quite different from the old one.
  5. The newly-elaborated technique has something (nothing, little) in common with the one previously used.
  6. The method of deriving a program described here differs from previous practice in that…

(3)应用该方法可以进行……工作

  1. The method allows us to demonstrate…
  2. This technique enables us to observe…
  3. The above procedure makes it possible to defect…
  4. This method is capable of providing…
  5. By the method we are able to investigate the insight of…
  6. We have adopted the integrated filtering cell approach to miniaturize the prototype.
  7. The method proves to be useful in…
  8. The interpretation effects were successfully evaluated by employing AIA.

(4)该方法可称为(描述为)…

  1. The method used is known as…
  2. The technique we applied is referred to as…
  3. The procedure the followed can be briefly described as …
  4. The approach adopted extensively is called…
  5. Since the method was first put in use, we might as well name it as…

(5)用该方法已获得 ……

  1. We have obtained this information from recent experiments with…
  2. Detailed information has been acquisited by the authors using X-ray analysis.
  3. The researches have recorded valuable data using the newly-developed method.
  4. The experts in the research center are satisfactory with the experimental results achieved by the application of…

七、“展示结果”的句式用语

1. 主要用场

展示研究结果的句式用语,在英语科学论文中常见于摘要、实验结果、结果与讨论及结论等部分。展示研究结果时常用的表达有:“该项研究结果说明了……”,“根据该项研究结果可以得出……”,“该项工作提供了……结果”,“该项实验取得了……结果”,“……概括了该项结果”等。

2. 常用句式

(1)该项研究说明(指出、揭示)了……

  1. The studies we have performed show(ed) that these particles are responsible for …
  2. These pioneer studies that the authors attempted have indicated marked variations in…
  3. We carried out several studies which have demonstrated that the substance acts on …
  4. The research we have done suggests an increase in…
  5. The investigation carried out by…has revealed no resistance of…
  6. Our research has supported the assumption that…
  7. Their studies have confirmed the opinion that…
  8. This research bore out the idea that…
  9. Laboratory studies of…did not furnish any information about…
  10. Our research carried out to the same effect failed to reveal any variations in…
  11. Recent research into the nature of… fails to support the theory that…
  12. Most recent studies showed no changes in…
  13. Further research reveals no evidence of…
  14. All our preliminary results throw light on the nature of…

(2)根据该项实验结果可得出……

  1. More recent experiments in this area lead us to conclude that the phenomenon is related to …
  2. Most recent experiments to the same effect have led the authors to believe that the mechanism is out of action.
  3. Further experiments in this area have enabled these workers to suggest that…
  4. As a result of our experiments, we concluded that…
  5. From our experiments, the authors came to realize that…
  6. From these experiments one can conclude that…

(3)该项工作提供了(没有得出)……结果

  1. This fruitful work gives explanation of…
  2. Their fundamental work provides some knowledge of …
  3. The author’s pioneer work has contributed to our present understanding of…
  4. This joint work of many years has led to further progress in…
  5. Our integrated work of the past few years adds to our current concept of…
  6. The research work has brought about a discovery of…
  7. The research by workers (has) result(ed) in a solution of…
  8. Our work on…(has) failed to give…
  9. Their initial work with…did not result in…
  10. This initial work with…did not result in…
  11. Further work in this field failed to contribute to…
  12. These findings of the research has led the author to a conclusion that…

(4)该项实验(研究)取得(没有取得)……结果

  1. Some results of…are obtained in the experiment with…
  2. Sufficient result for…has been observed with the new method…
  3. Further progress can be provided by these experiments…
  4. No clear advancement has (so far)been see in…
  5. No direct outcome was then reported in…
  6. No such finding could be available in…
  7. No further result can be found with that technique.
  8. No experimental evidence has come to the studies of…

(5)某数据(图、表)总结(概括)了从……得到的……结果

  1. Figure 3 shows the results obtained form studies of…
  2. Table 5 presents the data provided by the experiments on…
  3. This table summarized the data collect during the experiment of …
  4. The results reported above have been shown in Figure1.
  5. Our experimental data briefly summarized as follows.
  6. Some of the authors’ findings are listed in tables.

八、“作出评价”的句式用语

1. 主要用场

研究成果评价的句型用语,在英语科学论文中常见于:摘要,讨论及结论等部分。从狭义上讲,研究成果评价是论文作者对自己所做工作的评价,从广义上讲,这种评价不仅限于对个人工作的评价,同时也包括作者对别人的评价,提出自己的观点和见解。作出评价时,肯定和否定是两种最基本的评价。

2. 常用句式和词语

  1. The author’s work on…has been very successful
  2. Our work involving studies of…did not prove to be encouraging.
  3. The new information has been insufficient to indicate that the change is dramatic.
  4. On of the assets of this technique is that it is very simple.
  5. The theory by…seemed quite competent.
  6. We consider the new idea quite likely a suitable one
  7. The data available in literature are quite important.
  8. The newly-developed method has certain advantages over the existing methods.
  9. The author has satisfactorily come to a conclusion that…
  10. These highly-technical experiments failed to provide any correlation between…
  11. The theory of…did not explain how much modifications arose.
  12. These findings are not consistent with the current theory.
  13. The above hypothesis seems rather interesting.
  14. So far there is not enough convincing evidence showing…
  15. The data obtained appear to be very similar to those reported earlier by…
  16. There may be a different approach to the above findings
  17. Our experimental result does not seem to suggest the following assumptions

利用上述句式,表示肯定评价的形容词,如:good, satisfactory, competent, convincing ,
adequate, reliable, correct, valid, helpful, fruitful, successful, stimulating, attractive, interesting, promising, exciting, careful;, profound, comprehensive, useful, encouraging, extensive, clear, sufficient, etc.

表示否定评价的形容词,如:deficient, faulty, inadequate, incomplete, unconvincing, unsatisfactory, meaningless, unreliable, incorrect, wrong, invalid, confusing, inexplicit, contradictory, controversial, divergent, puzzling, conflicting, ambiguous, insufficient, etc.

英语科学论文的写作句型用词方面有一定的规律可循。为了避免不必要的重复,有利于比较地道,规范的英语表达,有助于写作中的多样表述,并遵循科学论文的写作规律,本文对常用句式用语进行分类选择。根据表达科学研究成果的一般逻辑思维顺序和科学论文的结构程式,写作英语科学论文时常用句型用语可作如下分类:

  1. 指出研究目的,常用句型用语54条;
  2. 限定主题范围,常用句型用语30条;
  3. 说明理论依据,常用句型用语36条;
  4. 描述实验过程,常用句型用语30条;
  5. 介绍工作方法,常用句型用语 32条;
  6. 展示 研究结果,常用句型用语46条;
  7. 作出科学评价,常用句型17条及48个表示肯定或否定的形容词。

实践表明,集中掌握这些常用的型用语,对于写好英语科学论文大有裨益。

2009-12-5 作者 readwiki 发布于分类: 应用文档 | 关键字 : 论文 写作 | 浏览 | 评论 1
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  • 1
  • quote yyt reply
  • 2010-11-11 13:16:52
  • 真是很不错啊。
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